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The University of Massachusetts Amherst


Citing Sources

You will be adding your voice to on-going scholarly and professional conversations in linguistics. Providing citations is an opportunity to acknowledge your predecessors and contemporaries as you engage with, challenge, and build upon their ideas.

APA Style

MLA Style

Linguistic Society of America Citation Style

The Linguistics Society of America (LSA) has developed its own citation guidance, the "Unified Style Sheet for Linguistics," for formatting linguistics publications. biblatex-unified is a biblatex implementation of this style sheet.

For additional formatting direction, some publications utilize "Generic Style Rules for Linguistics," which was developed by a group of linguistics journal editors in 2003,

"The LSA Guidelines for Nonsexist Usage" and more recent "Guidelines for Inclusive Language" offer best practices for avoiding unnecessarily gendered and potentially sexist language in one's writing.

Citation Managers

Citation managers are software that allows you to:

  1. Create bibliographies and references automatically in many styles
  2. Embed footnotes, end notes, and in-text citations in a document
  3. Re-use your research over time

You'll still need to review inputs and outputs for accuracy, but their automated capabilities do away with a great deal of menial sorting and organizing.


Zotero is a free, open source citation manager. Your account is not tied to UMass, so you can take your citation library wherever you go. At the risk of sounding like an infomercial, just try it!

The library offers an extensive guide to getting started with Zotero.