Skip to Main Content
The University of Massachusetts Amherst

Resource Economics

A UMass Library Guide to Resource Economics - Consumer, Family, Food, and Natural Resource Economics


It is important to properly cite your sources that you use in your research for various reasons:

  1. It acknowledges the work and contributions of other writers and researchers as related to your work.
  2. It shows that you are a responsible scholar who gives credit to other researchers and acknowledges their ideas.
  3. It shows to your readers that you have done proper research by listing the sources you used to gather information.
  4. It helps your reader to track down the sources you used by citing them accurately.
  5. It avoids plagiarism.

For your work in this course, you have been asked to use the APA reference citation style for both print and online resources. This style is used in economics and other social science disciplines. Here are a couple of style guides for examples of citing sources in the text of your paper and in a bibliography or reference list.

Examples of Citations

Examples of Citations of Online Business Resources using APA 7th ed. (for your references list).

An Article with a DOI

Madani, K., Pierce, T. W., & Mirchi, A. (2017, February). Serious games on environmental management. Sustainable Cities and Society, 29, 1-11.

An Article without a DOI, from an Academic Database (such as ABI/Inform) or a Print Version

May, A. Y. C., Hao, G. S., & Carter, S. (2021). Intertwining Corporate Social Responsibility, Employee Green Behavior, and Environmental Sustainability: The Mediation Effect of Organizational Trust and Organizational Identity. Economics, Management and Financial Markets, 16(2), 32-61.

IBISWorld Reports

Ristoff, J. (2021, September). Manufacturing in the US (US Industry NAICS Report 31-33). IBISWorld.

Roth, R. (2020, December). Solar Panel Installation (US Specialized Industry Report OD4494). IBISWorld.

IBISWorld. (2021, December). Industrial production index (US Business Environment Profiles Report B106).

Plunkett Research Online

Plunkett, J. W., Plunkett M. B., & Snider, I. J. (2021) Smart Electric Grid Technologies Are Adopted. Energy & Utilities Industry. Plunkett Research Online. Retrieved January 5, 2022, from

Plunkett, J. W., Plunkett M. B., Steinberg, J. S., Faulk, J., & Snider, I. J. (2022). Unilever PLC. [Company profile]. Plunkett Research Online. Retrieved January 5, 2022, from

BCC Research

Singh, T. P. (2019, July). Renewable Energy: Technologies and global markets. BCC Research. Retrieved January 5, 2022 from Academic

Freedonia. (2021, December). Mining & quarrying: United States [Market report]. Academic.


Gallinari, M. (2021). Urban, rural and suburban lifestyles - US - 2021. Mintel Academic.

Hansen, K. (2021, November). Sustainability behaviors in online shopping - US - 2021. Mintel Academic.

Mintel Market Sizes. (2021). Household Cleaners - US.

Citing Census Data

It is just as important to cite datasets that are used in your research as it is to cite journal articles, books and other sources that contributed to the research. Be sure to provide enough information in your citation so that the reader can identify, retrieve, and access the same unique dataset that you have used in your research.

Many citation styles do not provide exact guidance for how to cite U.S. Census data. There are a few categories of information to keep in mind when you build a citation to a source of Census data.

  • Authorship -- Who is responsible for the content? List the name of the individual(s) or organizational entity responsible for the creation of the source.
  • Title -- What is the title of the source? This could be the title of the data table or a specific dataset.
  • Identifiers -- Is there additional information to distinguish the source? This might include version information, a DOI, table numbers or geographic limiters.
  • Source Information -- Where is the source located? Information includes the name of the website, portal or database, and URL.

The basic format for citing U.S. Census data in the APA Citation style is:

U.S. Census Bureau (year data was published). Name of data or report. Retrieved from: URL.


U.S. Census Bureau (n.d.). Quick Facts: Amherst Town city, Massachusetts. Retrieved from: []

If you are citing data from a specific Census table, find the permalink and include it in your reference to connect to it directly. Include the Table name and the words "Data Set" in your reference. For example:

U.S. Census Bureau (year data was published). Name of data or report (Table name) [Data Set]. Retrieved from: URL.


U.S. Census Bureau. (2017). Manufacturing: All Sectors: Summary Statistics for the U.S., States, and Selected Geographies: 2017 (Table EC1700BASIC) [Data Set]. Retrieved from: