Ethics and scientific publication: The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive discussion of ethical problems encountered during the publication process. ... While it is always difficult to legislate appropriate standards of behavior, it was the intent and responsibility of the Federal Government to ensure that publicly funded research is above reproach.
An analysis of citations to retracted articles in the scientific literature. A Master’s Paper for the M.S. in L.S degree. April, 2005. "It is equally important that authors and editors check the reference lists in articles before publication. Not only do they need to check for misspellings and errors, but one of the references could be to a work proven to be invalid."
Retracted Science and the Retraction Index: Using a novel measure that we call the “retraction index,” we found that the frequency of retraction varies among journals and shows a strong correlation with the journal impact factor.
Retractions: Guidance from the Committee on Publication Ethics: Retraction is a mechanism for correcting the literature and alerting readers to publications that contain such seriously flawed or erroneous data that their findings and conclusions cannot be relied upon. Unreliable data may result from honest error or from research misconduct.
Misconduct accounts for the majority of retracted scientific publications. A detailed review of all 2,047 biomedical and life-science research articles indexed by PubMed as retracted on May 3, 2012 revealed that only 21.3% of retractions were attributable to error. In contrast, 67.4% of retractions were attributable to misconduct, including fraud or suspected fraud (43.4%), duplicate publication (14.2%), and plagiarism (9.8%).
Why has the committee on publication ethics developed guidelines for cooperation between journals and research institutions? The primary role of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) is to provide advice and guidance to journal editors and publishers on ethical issues.
Editors have a responsibility to retract seriously flawed articles from their journals. However, there appears to be little consistency in journals' policies or procedures for this. Our findings have been used as the basis for guidelines developed by the Committee on Publication Ethics.