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UMass Amherst Libraries

Open Scholarship & Scholarly Publishing

Covering various elements of producing and sharing scholarship.

Funding Open Scholarship and Scholarly Publishing

Open scholarship shifts the costs of producing scholarly outputs (articles, books, data sets, code, protocols, etc.) and supporting infrastructure (hardware, indexing, metadata, operating systems, software, unique identifiers, etc.) from the reader/user to the author/researcher, charitable organization, academic institution, government or some combination of these. Historically, a user would access traditional scholarly outputs (articles, books, journals) by paying for a membership, subscription or purchase, or they would gain access as an authorized user of an academic institution, public library or organization that pays for access on their behalf. At the foundation of the open access movement is the evolution of digital scholarship which has created opportunities for sharing a more complete representation of research outputs without financial barriers for accessing them. The "user pays" model now has alternatives that do not put the burden of payment for access on the reader/user.

The means of paying for open scholarship are constantly evolving. These are some funding models in current use:

Funding type Description Examples
Author/article processing charges (APCs) publisher sets a fee for open access publication of articles and books/chapters. These fees can range for a few hundred to thousands of dollars which enable immediate (Gold/hybrid) access to the published work. The author of the work is responsible for payment, but may receive financial and administrative support from their funder, institution and/or library. Elsevier, Springer/Nature, MDPI, PLOS, SAGE Publishing, Routledge
Community action/investment publisher/provider proposes to publish open access journals or books if they achieve a certain level of investment from libraries, consortia and other community partners. In these agreements, the author bears no financial responsibility. Knowledge Unlatched, Public Domain Song Anthology, MIT Press Direct to Open, Lyrasis Open Access Community Investment Program, PLOS Community Action Publishing, Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP3), University of Michigan Press Fund to Mission
Memberships publisher, provider and advocacy organizations run their operations, all or in part, with fees they collect from other member organizations.  In some cases, membership grants authors affiliated with the organization a reduction in open access APCs.  Open Library of the Humanities, arXivBioOne, SPIE Journals Open Access, The Royal Society, Frontiers
Subscribe to Open (S2O) publisher will "flip" a set number of journal issues or books that have been toll or subscription funded to open access based on achieving a threshold of payments from libraries. In these agreements, the author bears no financial responsibility. More information is available from the Subscribe to Open Community of Practice. Annual Reviews, Berghahn, Central European University Press (CEUP)
Transformative agreements publisher charges the library/institution for both read/use access and open access publication of research for members of that organization. There are many different types of TAs. Authors may or may not be responsible for partial payment, depending on the availability of other sources of publication funding, but the transaction costs are generally handled by the publisher and library/institution. Some have expressed concerns that TAs entrench existing, inequitable publishing systems. see ESAC Transformative Agreement Registry. See also ACM Open.

UMass Amherst Open Access Agreements and Advocacy

The UMass Amherst Libraries have been providing financial support for open scholarship content, infrastructure and advocacy organizations for two decades. These investments are guided by our Framework for Provider Agreements. If you have questions about how to benefit from these agreements, or you would like to suggest new ones, please contact us.


Research outputs, such as articles, books, data sets, protocols, software code, visualizations, etc.
Publisher/Provider Content Type(s) Benefit Funding Type
Annual Reviews articles, journals Open access to use content. Publish with no APCs. S2O
ArXiv preprint articles Open access to use content. membership
BioMed Central articles 15% discount on APCs for UMass Amherst authors. subscription
Cambridge University Press articles APCs are waived for UMass Amherst authrs for OA publication in gold and hybrid journals. transformative agreement
Central European University Press e-books Open access to use 25 new and 50 backlist titles. S2O
Knowledge Unlatched e-books Open access to use scholarly monographs in the humanities and social sciences. community investment
Latin Americanist Research Resources Project (LARRP) archives, books, letters, etc. All content is open access. membership
Lyrasis Open Access Community Investment Program (OACIP) e-journals Open access to use journals Environmental HumanitiesCombinatorial Theory, History of Media Studies and Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication. Publish with no APCs. community investment
MDPI articles 10% discount on APCs for UMass Amherst authors. membership
MIT Press Direct to Open books open access to use scholarly monographs in STEM, social sciences and humanities. community investment
Open Book Publishers books open access to use scholarly monographs. membership
Open Library for the Humanities (OLH) articles Open access to content. Publish in 27 journals with no APCs. membership
PLOS articles Open access to use content. Publish with reduced ($400) APC, or no APC, depending on title. community investment
Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS) articles All content is open within six months of publication. For immediate open access, APC is reduced by $500. institutional license/ subscription
Public Domain Song Anthology popular music Open access to use content. community investment
The Royal Society articles 25% discount on APCs for UMass Amherst authors. membership
SPIE Journals Open Access articles 25% discount on APCs for UMass Amherst authors. subscription
Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP3) articles, books Open access to use content. Publish with no APCs. community investment
SpringerOpen articles 15% discount on APCs for UMass Amherst corresponding authors. subscription
Technical Reports Archive & Image Library (TRAIL) government reports access to content without charge membership
University of Michigan Fund to Mission books open access to scholarly monographs in the social sciences and humanities community investment


Hardware, indexing, metadata, operating systems, platforms, software, standards, unique identifiers, etc.
Publisher/Provider Content Type(s) Benefit Funding Type
BioOne articles, journals Platform to find open access articles from publishers in the biological, ecological and environmental sciences. subscription
Directory of Open Access Books  database, books Directory, indexing and curating of peer-reviewed open access books.  membership
Directory of Open Access Journals database, journals Directory, indexing and curating of peer-reviewed open access journals. membership
Free Journal Network Diamond (non-APC) open access journals Community-governed, open source platform and support network for diamond OA journals. membership
Fulcrum/Michigan Publishing books,3-D models, embedded audio, video, and databases; zoomable online images, and interactive media Community-developed, open source platform for digital scholarship. community investment
Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD) theses and dissertations Federated search of T&Ds. Also promotes adoption, creation, use, dissemination and preservation of T&Ds. membership
Open Access Publishing in European Networks (OApen) books Directory, indexing, platform and publishing services for open access books. membership
Open Researcher/Contributor ID (ORCID) unique identifier and researcher/contributor data platform Open source, community-governed platform that assigns unique researcher/contributor identifiers which may be populated with profile data and exchanged with other publisher, funder and institution systems at the researcher's discretion. membership
Open Textbook Library textbooks Open textbook platform and discovery service. Textbooks include reviews and all content is openly licensed. membership
Pressbooks textbooks and books Open source, community-governed book publishing platform local instance and support


Groups of people or organizations who work together to advance common interests.
Organization Description Funding Type
Coalition of Open Access Policy Institutions (COAPI) Representatives from North American universities with established faculty Open Access policies and those in the process of developing them membership
Library Publishing Coalition (LPC) Dedicated to supporting libraries in their publishing initiatives, including open access publishing efforts. UMass is a founding member. membership
Scholarly Publishing & Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) Supports open access, open education and scholarly communication community development initiatives, analysis and policy development. membership
Open Education Network Provides a collaborative community, programming and platform for open education resource development. membership