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UMass Amherst Libraries

Engineering 113: Introduction to Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

How useful is this? Is it valid?

The CRAAP test was developed by librarians at the Meriam Library at California State University Chico.Using the CRAAP test, you can decide if a website or other resource is useful and valid. Follow these steps:

  1. Currency: Is the information timely and up-to-date? When was it last updated?
  2. Relevance: Does the information answer your research question? Is it too technical or too simple for your purposes? Does it add something new to your knowledge of the topic?
  3. Authority: Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor? What are the author’s credentials and institutional affiliation? Is the author qulaified? Can you find contact information?
  4. Accuracy: Where does the information come from? Is it supported by evidence? Can you verify any of the information in another source? Has it been reviewed or refereed?  Is the language impartial and objective? Are there errors in the text?
  5. Purpose: What is the purpose of the information-- inform, teach, sell, entertain or persuade? Are the creators clear about its purpose? Is it fact, opinion or propaganda? Can you detect political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional, or personal biases?

Materials Pricing


Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education - Conversations on Campus SustainabilityFrom the website: The online Resource Center is a comprehensive source of information on sustainability in higher education. It provides administrators, faculty, operations staff, students, and other campus stakeholders with the tools, information and guidance they need to lead the sustainability transformation. Member dues are the chief source of funding for developing and maintaining these resources.

Government resources

Standards LibGuide

See Standards LibGuide for information and links to standards organizations and standards education resources.